Hey Carbon, I'm Sodium! Did you know that since I'm a metal and you're not, we can bond ionically! This means that we transfer our valence electrons to each other! I have 1 and you have 4!
If a nonmetal were to bond with another, that would be covalent bonding, where you SHARE your valence electrons! For example, you can form a covalent bond with Oxygen over there.
Oh wow! That's so cool. What's up Oxygen!
Oh, I did not know that. What would happen if I were to bond with ANOTHER nonmetal?
I have 1 valence electron and and Aluminum has 3 valence electrons, so this means that our valence electrons from our s and p orbitals delocalize.
Well, if says here that this would make a metallic bond. With this said, Aluminum and I can bond metallically.
So what does this mean? How does it work?
What if you, Na, were to bond with another METAL?
Well it says here that ionic bonds have high melting points, hard but brittle, and can dissolve in water. While covalent bonds have both a lower melting point and lower electrical conductivity than ionic bonds.
Hmm, the textbook says that metallic bonds have high melting and boiling points, but low volatility. That's interesting!
So what do all of these types of bonding really do according to the Chemistry textbook?
What about metallic bonds? What can they do?
Hmm, well it talks about something called bond polarity. There are three types of bond polarity: nonpolar covalent bonding, polar covalent bonding, and ionic bonding. Nonpolar covalent bonding happens when atoms in a bond pull equally, meaning the bonding electrons are shared equally, while polar covalent bonding happens when the electrons between atoms are shared unequally. With this said, ionic polar bonding occurs when the difference between electronegativities is large enough that one atom actually takes an electron from the other.
What else does it say in there?
Of course. It says here that electronegativity is the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound, so basically the strength an atom has to attract a bonding pair of electrons to itself. The difference in the measure of electronegativity vales can determine whether a bond is nonpolar, polar covalent, or ionic.
Now that we got this textbook stuff out of the way, let's go out and bond!
Interesting. You know, I heard Ms. Sendil talking about electronegativity in class today, can we read about that?