When two plates pull apart, it creates a divergent boundry. Convection currents push magma through the newly formed gaps, and as the two plates pull apart the surfaced magma cools and creates newly formed rock. This process happens along the Mid-ocean Atlantic ridge slowly expanding the Atlantic plate year by year, this process is appropriately named Seafloor-spreading.
Alfred Wegener was the first to propose the supercontinent Pangea. Today a solid thoery exists that proposes that Pangea did indeed exist, however it drifted apart due to a phenomenon known as Continental drift.
Transform boundries are also knwon as strike and slip boundries. Pressure and stress build between these faults until they shift dramatically against eachother, resulting in vicious seismic activity.
Convergent boundries occur when two plate collide head on. Often, this happens between continental and oceanic plates, the lesser dense continental crust is lifted above the more dense oceanic. When two plates of identical densities collide, they warp and buckle, creating massive mountain ranges.
Earthquakes occur when the immense amount of stress and pressure between faults are released. The center of an Earthquake is an epicenter, the epicenter is directly above the location of the point of release for the stress. There are two types of energy waves released in an earthquake, the faster P-wave, and the slower and more destructive S-wave. The destruction and strength of a earthquake is measured on the Ritcher Scale.
Volcanoes serve as the gateways the raging heart of our earth. A heavily Volcano population region is the Ring of Fire along the pacific plate boundaries. There are three types of volcanoes, Cinder, Composite, and Sheild Volcanoes. Cinder volcanoes have short stocky cones, semi-explosive eruptions, and erdoe rather quickly. Composite volcanoes are what you think of when somebody tells you to think of a volcano, they are highly explosive and the most cmoon colcano on earth. Sheild volcanoes are smooth domes with runny thick lava that builds over time in layers.
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