The birth of the Renaissance gave people more creative and innovative mindsets. Painters no longer had to paint only religious things, but used math and nature to paint other things. It also brought a change in vernacular; things were written in different languages, allowing more people to gain knowledge about different things. Lastly, the renaissance gave birth to the invention of the printing press. This allowed books to be made faster and effortlessly, making them more affordable for the common people, letting them gain knowledge.
The reformation was a time period initiated by Martin Luther's challenge of the Catholic church by writing and hammering the 95 theses on their door.
Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution
Things like the Triangular Trade and the Columbian Exchange brought about the exchange of ideas, cultures, diseases, food, and animals. The Columbian Exchange in particular caused the circulation of a variety of crops and livestock, and many destructive diseases that depopulated many cultures. Inventions of things like the lateen sail, the astrolabe, and the magnetic compass impacted navigation when exploring, and helped sailors reach their destinations faster. The Triangular Trade included a bunch of trade routes between Europe, Africa, and America. The British brought goods to Africa in exchange for slaves. This affected politics in Africa, as the British would favor the tribal chiefs that gave them slaves. The slaves were then taken to America to work on the plantations; those goods from the plantations would then be sent to England, and the cycle would continue. This cycle is called mercantilism, as the British benefit the most economically from these trades.