The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. And it all started with the 95 Thesis Martin Luther put on the Roman Catholic church's door.
The Renaissance (“Re-Birth”), an Era (in the late 14th century through the early 16th century) most famous for its development of Thinking and Art. Music, literature, etc
The Scientific Revolution was a intellectual movement of the 1500’s. That focused on advancements in math, physics, astronomy, biology, and chemistry.
The Enlightenment was period during the 1600s and 1700s in which educated Europeans changed their outlook on life by seeing reason as the key to human progress. Another name for the Enlightenment is "The Age of Reason".
The American Revolution was a time when the British colonists in America rebelled against the rule of Great Britain. The American Revolutionary War lasted from 1775 until 1783.
The French Revolution was a period of time in France when the people overthrew the monarchy and took control of the government. The French Revolution lasted 10 years from 1789 to 1799.
The Latin American Wars of Independence, which took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, were deeply influenced by the American and French Revolutions. And resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.
Nationalism is the devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation. For example if a person started their own nation about certain beliefs and people followed the were showing nationalism to their created nation.
Imperialism is the policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. For example if the Russians wanted to have control of another nation and actually succeed that is imperialism.