The Arabian Peninsula is mostly desert with very few oases. People would settle and form communities at oases. People were organized into tribes and clans that were led by sheikh. Tribes often fought for control of the oases and the trading centers.
The Qur'an and Hadith
Muhammad had a very deep interest into religion. He would always pray and he would hear a voice that would identify as angel Gabriel. Some of Muhammad's teaching had threatened political leaders and the leaders had made it much more difficult for Muhammad. Muhammad and his followers were given leadership from Mecca to establish an Islamic community.
Life After Muhammad
The Qur'an is the final book of revelations and contains the flawless words of Allah as revealed to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. The words and actions from the Qur'an was leading to Muhammad, which is called the Sunna. The Muslims had applied their religous beliefs to their lives daily. The Muslims also would be in a mosque to worship a God.
The Umayyads and the Abbasids
Qur'an had showed that God has created all types of people. It had also shown that God is the most godfearing to people. Another thing from the Qur'an is that God willed and God would've made one nation. Hadith shows that on whoever believes in God, would not harm their neighbor.
When Muhammad died, the Muslim state almost collapsed without a successor. Muhammad's followers had a hard time deciding on how to choose a leader. They decided to have Muhammad's father-in-law as their new leader. Their caliphs also succeeded in establishing a large Muslim empire.
After Ali was murdered, there was a family known as the Umayyads that have gain power. They established lots of things to make the Muslim empire grow. There was a rival clan that was named the Abbasids, and they were also descendants of Muhammad's uncle. They took control of the empire, but soon they got stormed and they went downfall.