The Umayyads got control again, but for Spain. There was a man named, "Abd al-Rahman," he had established a powerful, independent state that refused to acknowledge Abbasid authority in Baghdad. Abd al-Rahman III transformed Córdoba into one of the largest and greatest cities. Córdoba also became the most celebrated as a center of learning.
Science and Philosophy
Suleyman I was the greatest of the Ottoman rulers. He led a powerful navy and a large army. The reign of Suleyman I lasted to the early 1900's. The Jews and Chritians enjoyed religious and cutural freedom.
Architecture, the Arts, and Literature
Safavids were rivals of the Sunni Ottomans. They developed a strong economy and used their wealth to build palaces and mosques and schools, hospitals, roads, and bridges. The Mughals were nomads that invaded India. Akbar the Great established a loyal governing class and an effective modern government.
The medieval Muslim leaders and scholars helped build a foundation for modern civilization. Muslim scholars developed their ideas in geometry, trigonometry, and algebra. Muslim quests that are for knowledge helped make the form of medicine. Their most influential works was a 30-volume medical encyclopedia.
In a typical mosque, it was topped by a large dome and had one or more minarets. Minarets are extremely tall, slender towers. The Muslims considered the Qur'an to be the greatest literary work in Arabic language. Muslims also admired poetry more than any other form of literature.