The Soviet rule in Tajikistan had unintended consequences that even the Russians did not want. One of these was the separating the majority of the population into two groups, the Tajik and the Uzbek.
Back to work phesants.
However, some of the changes were intentional, such as the language change. The Soviets changed Tajikistan's traditional Arab alphabet into the more western alphabet of Latin. Then they forced the government to accept this new language as Tajikistan's official language.
Another one of these changes was that the new western government repressed and/or purged many of the natives. This attack was focused on the intellectuals in order to keep them in check and to prevent them from rebelling. These acts were carried out through accusing the intellectuals of with loose,and often false, accusations followed by prison or death.
They also collectivized farming, just like in Russia. Tajikistan grew mostly cotton, so the Soviets tried to set up large plantations to mass produce it for their mills in Russia. However, the forced relocation of phesent as well as the violence against them at the plantations, led to unrest and eventually the overthrow of the Russian government.
Finally, the Russian rule severely affected the Tajikistan culture. They "Sovietized" the country and brought many of their customs, like Christianity, with them. They also virtually took over the government and made all government officials be non-Tajikistan.