After Spain fought in the Napoleonic wars, they were facing mounting war debts and on the verge of an economic crisis. Spain turned to Mexico to pay these debts through loans and mortgages and other taxes that created increasing tension between Spain and Mexico.
Agustin de Iturbide
Miguel Hidalgo was a poor but educated man who worked as a priest in the small village of Dolores. On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo, a strong believer in Enlightenment ideals, rang the bell of his church in the village to gather the peasants. He issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish, now known as the grito de Dolores.
The Treaty of Córdoba
Hidalgo was defeated at Calderón in January 1811. He attempted to flee north, but was captured and executed. However, other peasant leaders, including José María Morelos, followed him and led armies of native and racially mixed revolutionaries against the Spanish and the Royalists.
Effect of Mexican Revolution
Mexico united under Agustín de Iturbide, the leader of the Royalist forces who defeated Morelos and had also declared himself emperor. In early 1821, Iturbide negotiated the Plan of Iguala with Vicente Guerrero. This plan established an independent constitutional monarchy, the privileged position of the Catholic Church would be maintained, and the rights of citizens were decided.
Plan of Iguala
The last Spanish viceroy was forced to accept Mexican independence due to their lack of money, provisions, and troops. On August 24, 1821, Spanish Viceroy Juan de O’Donojú signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.
Mexico gained independence from Spain and was recognized as an independent country. They now had a constitutional monarchy. The country would later be led by Santa Anna.