The bill of rights is the first ten amendments in the constitution which was aimed at personal liberties and imposed general limits on the federal government. After many states ratified the constitution the new government became a reality in 1789. The U.S constitution is the oldest written constitution in operation in the world.
On July 4th, 1776, the 13 colonies approved the final text of the Declaration of Independence. The colonies realized that the government didn't have enough power, so a year later they passed the Articles of Confederation.
The states decided that the Articles of Confederation was too weak and didn't have enough power. Some examples include, not having the right to tax, couldn't draft men into military, the Executive Branch had no Federal government, and the Judicial branch was not existent.
Larger states believe in the Virginia Plan which proposed a bicameral legislature which membership was based on state population. Smaller states proposed the New Jersey Plan which gave all states one representative to give equal equality among them.
The government introduced the great compromise giving the senate equal representation and the house of representatives based on state population. The government also agreed on the three-fifth compromise meaning slaves count as 3/5s of a person and vote.
The three branches of government were created; legislative,executive,judicial branch. The legislative branch creates laws, the executive branch carries out laws, and the judicial branch interprets laws. The government includes checks and balances making sure no branch gains too much power.
Federalists want balance between states and national government while anti-federalists wanted the bill of rights. This created conflict in the government but the bill of rights resulted because of it.