The research have to identify what type of pathogen the illness is and find out whatever the best way to kill or weaken the pathogen for the vaccine.
A weekend or dead pathogen is put into the body. Antibodies attach to antigens whichattack and try to kill the weakened pathogen that the vaccine has inserted.
Specific defence mechanismB-cells (Lymphocyte) are produced and antibodies connect with antigens.
Once the Pathogen is killed/eliminated, Memory B-cells remember how to attack and/or stop the pathogen if a non-weekend version enters the body, therefore creating artificial immunity.
On a potential second exposure through Non-specific defence mechanism, the memory b-cells are used to remember how to kill or lower the risk of the specific pathogen that the vaccine was made for. Therefore, the pathogen can be killed quickly.
The dead pathogen is broken up by bacteria and the bacteria consumes it.