Rome was sourounded by mountains and hills. These provided natural barriers for any invading army. Rome was built atop of seven hills giving the city visibilty and protection.
Rivers are essential to the success of any ancient civilization. Rome was built on the Tiber River. It supplied fresh water, even more obstacles for an army, and a route for trade
The Mediterranean Sea is sometimes referred to as the Mare Nostrum or the Roman lake because to its extent the Roman empire surrounded the Mediterranean. It supplied even more trade routes and natural borders.
Roman roads were essential to the growth of Rome. It helped the army move around. It also meant that trade flourished. They were made with a mortar foundation with stones and pebbles on top. Then sand was then placed down under the pavement.
As time went on Rome grew so large that it was impractical to go all the way to the Tiber just to get water. So instead the romans brought the water to the citizens.
The Roman Empire mostly consisted of a Mediterranean climate with warm summers and mild winters perfectly suited to agriculture