Immune System Comic

Immune System Comic

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  • Good Morning, today we will showcase: Listeria.
  • Remember, Listeria was discovered as a food-borne pathogen, and currently affects 30,000 out of 100,00 people.
  • Listeria infects the bloodstream, brain, and spinal cord membranes
  • It also affects people with Weak Immune Systems, and can be passed from Mother to Children.
  • Dendritic cells help activate the T cell’s response Memory T cells are used to protect the host from re-infection of Listeria.
  •  Macrophagesget neutrophils to help with phagocytosis of listeria       These same cytokines that provide natural killer cells trigger the hosts inflammatory respons
  • Listeria was first discovered as a food-borne pathogen in the 1980s. Incidence was first estimated at about 0.8 cases per 100,000 in the late 1980s. By the early 2000s, Listeria cases declined to about 0.3 cases per 100,000. Since then, Listeria incidence has remained largely unchanged.
  • Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection and signal macrophages to come to engulf the bacterial cells.
  • Resident macrophages in the stomach engulf and attempt to break down the viral material.
  • Listeria travels is found in contaminated foods. However, it only affects people with weak immune systems i.e. Pregnant Mothers. When mothers are pregnant, they can also pass thee disease onto their child.
  • Helper - The Helper T cells are responsible for identification of the bacteria and presenting the antigen B cells - The B cells assist the T cells in making specific response to the Listeria Memory- protects from reinfection
  • Interesting but there is a little bit more
  •  CD4 and CD8  are the T cells involved in the adaptive response to listeria        Antigen-presenting cells use antigen from this destruction and present it to T cells
  • Effector - Effector B cells secrete large amounts of antibodies that include cytotoxic cells that assist in antigen defense
  • The macrophages secrete cytokines that cause natural killer cells to produce a hormone that in turn increases the macrophages's bacterial "eating" capabilities.
  • Immunoglobulin response- The immunoglobulins are glycoproteins that recognize specific antigens and aid in their elimination.
  • Antigen repsonse - Antigen-presenting cells use antigen memory cells to protect the host from getting Listeria again after it is engulfed by macrophages
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