Weathering, erosion, and deposition
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Caverns are formed by starting off as land near water
Water and wind erode away the land that it touches
A small cavern is started off before it can fully erode away
The cavern then get more stable and becomes wider and deeper and the water runs inside of it.
The water then starts to deposit some sediments inside the cave making different ground levels in the cave
Then when water levels decrease the rock that was still eroding from the ceiling stays and becomes a stalagmites.
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