In the 11th century, Palestine came under control of a rising Muslim power, the Seljuk Turks. They captured Syria, Palestine, and most of Anatolia. This rising power threatened the Byzantine Empire.
We are the Seljuk Turks!
Close to 30,000 crusaders fought their way through Anatolia and headed south to Palestine. On their way they gained power over Antioch. July 1099, Jerusalem surrendered and the crusaders won.
The First Crusade
The Christians sent the Second Crusade when the Muslims captured Edessa in 1144. A German army was badly beaten in Anatolia, and in 1148 Muslims from Edessa beat a French army at Jerusalem. With that the Second Crusade was over.
The Second Crusade
In 1191, KIng Richard I of England led his army to regain the land that Sultan Salah al-Din united Egypt, Syria, lands to the east, most of Palestine, and in 1187 his armies captured Jerusalem. In 1192 the two leaders signed a peace treaty.
The Third Crusade
KIng Richard I, also known as Richard the Lionheart, led an English army into the Third Crusade to try to regain control of Jerusalem from Muslims. His army forced the surrender of the Palestinian town of Acre.
KIng Richard I of England
We are going to take back what is rightfully ours!
Christians sent crusades for the next 100 years trying to recover what they once had. But none succeeded in recapturing Jerusalem. As Christians were sending crusades, Muslims were regaining what they once had.