Edward declared himself king of France after King Philip VI seized the dutchy. Edward's rein started the 100 years war. After many years of successful war, the fighing was cut short due to an outbreak of the bubonic plague. After Philip died, King John II replaced him. Edward captured John in the battle of Poitiers and was given many lands, which lead to peace for nine years.
After a decade of peace, the war began again due to Edward IV refusin demands to come to Paris. King Charles V fulfilled his dream of taking back lands England took from them years ago before his death. Edward IV's son, Richard II, claimed control and made peace with Charles VI for 25 years.
This phase of war started when England's Henry V invaded Normandy in 1415. Henry's brother, John, led military campaigns into France before Henry's death. After this, an English King was crowned in France. Then, France crowned Charles VII as king in Notre Dame.
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc was a legendary French hero and born a peasant. He claimed to be following God's calling as he led the French to many victories near the end of the hundred years war. He was burned at the stake at the age of nineteen, and was claimed to be a martyr and a saint by the Catholic church .
Throughout the hundred years war, increased sense of national pride among English and French people was a development. The war was initially about family dynasties and the French throne, but nationalism played a major role in the conflict and increased after the wars.
The hundred years war lead to fundamental changes. One example is better use of funding towards knights and cavalry. We also learned that English longbows can pierce through the knight's armor, and the armies were made up of mostly peasants.