This is Sigmund Freud, he is the most famous psychologist. He focused on the unconscious mind and its impacts. He created psychoanalysis by analyzing peoples unconscious minds (mainly with dream analysis) to see what's wrong with them. Letting people say what's on their mind helped him. He used Id (devil), Ego ( gray area), and Superego (angel) to describe how we make decisions in our day to day lives. He also believed that traumatic experiences that happen early in our lives make us fearful as we get older.
This is Carl Jung, he also believed the unconscious mind had to do with our behaviors. He said that our ideas are influenced by beliefs that we inherit from our society and civilization. He was apart of Freud's group "Wednesday Psychology Society". He said the purpose of psychic energy was to motivate the individual in a number of important ways, including spiritually, intellectually, and creatively. It was also an individual’s motivational source for seeking pleasure and reducing conflict.
This is John Watson, he believed that only one's behavior could be studied. Watson developed Behaviorism, study how people act and learn how to control their action. Environment matters a ton to Watson in a child’s upbringing. In order to prove his findings, Watson conducted an experiment on a child where he showed the child some animals and an object that looked like an animal. The first time the child was neutral to everything, the second time Watson made a bell ring while he was showing the child the objects causing him to be fearful of them, this is classical conditioning, making the child develop a fear towards the objects.
. We behave the way we do because of how we perceive our situation. A person reaches self-actualization when they have proven that they are their best self. A person can reach their goals when they are in touch with the here and now. This happens when a person has/is: Open to experience, Existential living, Trust feelings, Creativity, Fulfilled life, Self-worth, Self-image, and ideal self.
This is Ivan Pavlov, he was a behaviorist that believed you could train animals by just the ding of a bell. Paired the excitement of a dog seeing food with the ding of the bell. He trained the dogs that every time the bell and it was time for food. We are wired like this in school with the ding of a bell telling us to go to our next class or class has started. B.F Skinner is also here, both men are behaviorist and have many of the same beliefs. Skinner focused on the effect rewards and punishments have on behavior. Uses reinforcement to manipulate behavior.
This is Abraham Maslow, he is the most popular humanist. Believed that people had to have certain things to grow and become successful. Every person has lots of potential to be successful. Discovered the hierarchy of need. There were five levels, physiology, safety, love/belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. You had to reach the level below in order to go further up the pyramid. Filling these needs usually make people feel better and it makes them want to continue to fill them. Growth needs don’t come from a lack of something but rather from the want to reach the next level. Maslow claims that the pyramid might be different for others depending on their circumstances like they might think self-esteem is more important than love/belonging. Transcendence needs, exceeding just self-needs.
This is Carl Rogers, he was a early humanist. His research was solely based around client-centered therapy. He encouraged people to find the resources inside themselves in order to help them change what they don't like about themselves. In order for someone to grow, they need to work in an environment that is accepting. For someone to reach their full potential the must meet stages of requirements.