Abd al-Rahman was the last surviving Umayyad prince. He founded an Umayyad dynasty in 756. From the city of Cordoba, he established a powerful, independent state. Cordoba was a great capital because it was one of the largest and greatest cities in the world. It had a huge library that contained about 400,000 books. Also Jews, Christians, and Muslims lived together under a government that practiced religious tolerance.
Suleyman I, known as Suleyman the Magnificant, ruled the Ottoman Empire. He ruled from 1520 to 1566. He was a celebrated poet, a talented goldsmith, and a generous patron of the arts. The ottoman empire came to be when the Ottomans continued to build an empire as they challenged the Safavid empire. In the ottoman empire, slaves staff the government and army, upper class woman influenced elite cultural and royal policies, and lower-class women had access to public areas.
Science and Philosophy
The Safavids were apart of a Shi'ite dynasty who were rivals of the Sunni Ottomans. Ismail was the leader of the Safavid Empire and united the Persian kingdoms into an independent state until 1501. The Safavid Empire was located at the center of international trade routes. They had a very strong economy. In 1722, the Empire was defeated.
Architecture, the Arts, and Literature
The Mughal Empire was to the east of the Safavid empire. The Mughals were nomads from central Asia. The Mughal leader was Akbar the great. The Mughals had an effective modern government. Akbar the great allowed different religions to flourish in the empire. In 1857, the empire came to an end.
Muslim Scholars built upon ancient learning to extend their understanding of the universe. They constructed observations to plot the movement of the stars, which enabled them to calculate the stars. This helped them calculate dates for religious ceremonies and advances in navigation. The Muslim quest for knowledge helped make medicine practices in Muslim the most advanced in the world.
A typical mosque was topped by a large dome and had one or more minarets. The inside of a mosque had distinctive features. Under the dome was the prayer hall which was spacious and full of light. Muslim artists didn't portray statues of humans or animals due to them thinking it would imitate God's act of creation.