New England colonies endured bitterly cold winters and mild summers. Land was flat close to the coastline but became hilly and mountainous farther inland. Soil was generally rocky, making farming difficult. Cold winters reduced the spread of disease.
New England's economy was largely dependent on the ocean. Fishing (especially codfish) was most important to the New England economy, though whaling, trapping, shipbuilding, and logging were important also.
The Middle colonies spanned the Mid-Atlantic region of America and were temperate in climate, with warm summers and cold winters. Geography ranged from coastal plains along the coastline, Piedmont (rolling hills) in the middle, and mountains farther inland.
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The Middle Colonies enjoyed a successful and diverse economy. Largely agricultural, farms in this region grew numerous kinds of crops, most notably grains and oats. Logging, shipbuilding, textiles production, and paper making were also important in the Middle Colonies.
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The Southern Colonies enjoyed warm climate with hot summers and mild winters. Geography ranged from coastal plains in the east to Piedmont farther inland. The westernmost regions were mountainous. The soil was perfect for farming and the growing season was longer than in any other region. .
The Southern economy was almost entirely based on farming. Rice, indigo, tobacco, sugarcane, and cotton were cash crops. Crops were grown on large plantations where slaves and indentured servants worked the land.