King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215 C.E. By signing the Magna Carta, no monarch, including him, could take away someone's rights.
You have to sign the Magna Carda or else.
In the Late 15th Century, rats carrying the bubonic plague were accidentally brought to Europe on trade ships from Asia. Many workers died from the plague. The workers who did survive started asking for higher pay and more rights.
Yes, I will. But you have to give me a higher pay and more rights.
Will you come work for me?
The longbow helped the English win many battles. It was able to shoot very far and the arrows were strong enough to pierce through armor. In result of the plague and the Hundred Years' War, monarchs and commoners gained power. They were able to gain power because they collected taxes to gather a professional army. Due to this, they did not need the knights anymore.