Before WWI ended, Indians had no interest of nationalism in India. India was ruled by the British and had two groups formed, Hindu National Congress and Muslim League. Indians had a change of interest once the British government unfulfilled their promise to those that served in their army of reforms that led to self government. This caused radical nationalists acts of violence and protests.
We will still treat you as second class citizens!
The British passed the Rowlatt Acts to allow government to jail the protesters without trial. Indians felt it violated their individual rights. To protest, they went to a huge festival in Amritsar to listen to political speeches. Most citizens were unaware of public meetings being banned and the British commander believed they purposely disobey it. He ordered troops to shoot the crowd and the slaughter became known as Amritsar Massacre.
After massacre, independence movements began and the leader of it was Mohandas K. Gandhi. The civil disobedience was created when Gandhi urged Hindu National Congress to clean up the mess of the British failing to punish officers for the massacre. The civil disobedience was a public refusal to obey an unjust law. It took an economic toll on the British and their source of wealth declined from Gandhi encouraged Indians to hand spun their own clothes on a spinning wheel.
Gandhi organized a demonstration to peacefully protest the salt law. The law was that Indians could only buy salt from the British government and they had to pay tax for salt sales. His followers and him walked 240 miles to the seacoast and created their own salt by collecting the water. Inspired, demonstrators started the Salt March at the place where the government processed the salt. Police attacked and they arrested Gandhi and his followers, but Gandhi gained worldwide support from the movement.
To finally fulfill promise, British Parliament passed the Government of India Act which provided local self government and limited democratic elections, but not total self rule. This fueled tensions between Muslims and Hindus inIndia. They had conflicting visions of Indians future as independent nations and Indian Muslims who were outnumbered by Hindus, feared Hindus will control India if it won independence.
Nationalism in the Southwest spurred from political and economic interest of the breakup of Ottoman empire and Persia/ Saudi Arabia. The Ottoman empire had the creation of Turkey as a republic and number of reforms. An example, women could vote or hold office. While, Persia/ Saudi Arabia was ruled by someone and had many modernized technology.