A colony is a piece of land which is ruled by another country. The 13 colonies were the most known colonies. It was made up of settlers all over Europe who wanted a chance of a better life. They were located along East Coast of North America because it was the closest to England.
After the France and Indian war, Britain was damaged and needed money and support to get back up. They decided to tax the colonists as the solution. The colonists protested to taxes by the help of the sons of liberity. They were the first people to call for freedom from British opression.
The phrase "No taxation without representation" meant that the colonists would not pay taxes if they didn't have a representative in the parliament. The colonists thought that they shouldn't get taxed by the parliament if they weren't a part of it. A parliament where people change laws and make decisions. The colonists wanted to be a part of parliament because they wanted to have a saying and also make decisions.
The Boston Massacre was when British soldiers and colonist/protesters were arguing. The argument turned into a protest which turned into a fusillade between the two . 10 people were killed by soldiers in the result of the massacre.
The war between the colonists and England happened because of unfairness. The British taxed the colonists so they could get more money to protect their country. The British didn't give the colonists any say in the parliament. That made the colonists want to defend themselaves and fight for freedom.