Biology prep


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  • Here we have a bacterium and a human gene for insulin, seen in the petri dish, and inside the bacteria cell, there is its chromosome (on the left) and its plasmid in the bacterial cell. Also the human gene next to it was cut out of its chromsome via restriction enzymes.
  • After removing the plasmid from the bacteria, a section of the plasmid is cut using the same restriction enzymes, which leave "sticky ends". The human gene is naturally attracted to the plasmid, and fills in the gap where the orginal gene was supposed to be. Afterwards, the two are permanently connected together by DNA ligase.​
  • Now the plasmid is called recombinant plasmid, due to containing both human and bacterial DNA. This new plasmid is then injected into the bacteria, where it then starts to syntheize the amino acids and proteins for producing insulin which can then be extracted, and used to save people with diabetes, cheaply and more reliabily. ​
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