In 1948, Israel was established and fighting between Arabs and Israelis broke out. The Soviet Union backed the Palestinians and the U.S. supported Israel. Palestinians fled the fighting and took refuge in Jordan. Today, more than 2 million refugees live in Jordan and almost all of them have citizenship.
Impact 2: Relations with the U.S.
The United States was looking for an ally in the Middle East as the Soviet's influence in the region was growing. The U.S. chose Jordan because it was a stable, anti-communist country. President Eisenhower pledged economic and military aid to Jordan in 1959 and in return, King Hussein of Jordan supported American interests in the region.
Impact 3: Black September
Defeat the Fedayeen!
In 1970, a radical Palestinian military group, the Fedayeen, took control of 4 airplanes with hostages that were mostly American and Israeli. President Nixon wanted the Fedayeen to be defeated and convinced Hussein to launch a military campagin against the group. The rest of the Arab world was angry with Jordan, and Syria even invaded the country. However, the presence of the United States and Israel in the region deterred Syria from using the full force of their military and Jordan was able to gain the upperhand. This fighting is now known as Black September.
Impact 4: Attempted Military Coup
The Jordanian government thwarted a military coup in 1972. The coup was given $20 million by Libya to ensure that it succeeded. Earlier in the year, the Soviet Union had taken interest in Libya and relations between the countries began.
Impact 5: Relations with the Soviet Union
During the 1980s, Jordan was disappointed with their relations with the United States, so the country began to have relations with the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union supplied Jordan with military equipment and as time went on, the United States had less influence on King Hussein and Jordan. Hussein also gained a better standing in the Arab world after becoming allies with the Soviet Union.