Although celebrated as a leader abroad, Malcolm finds himself under increased attack at home. Malcolm forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU), reflecting a growing political agenda, and spends nearly five months in Africa visiting heads of state and lobbying for his U.N. plan.
In 1948, Malcolm's brother introduced him to the words of the Nation of Islam's leader, Elijah Muhammad, the religion which he himself and their other siblings converted to. Malcolm was very interested, and started learning about it himself.
In August of 1952 Malcolm is released from prison, and quickly joins the Nation of Islam and attends meetings at Detroit's Temple No. 1, one of the four temples that the Nation operates at the time. Malcolm rejects the surname "Little" as it is a slave name given to his family by white oppressors, and he becomes known as "Malcolm X." Membership soars\ed because of him.
In December 1953, a little more than a year after he was paroled from prison, Malcolm was named the minister at the NOI’s Boston mosque, Temple No. 11. The following year he also became the minister at Temple No. 12 (Philadelphia) and Temple No. 7 (New York).