Ming China: Explanatory note written in the fifty‑fourth year of the Kangxi emperor (1715) by the eighty‑three‑year‑old elder Zhang Xingyao, styled Master Ziren.
"The houses there are very poor, except for those of the king and his courtiers. The merchants are exceedingly rich and large numbers of Negroes continually come here to buy cloth brought from Barbarie (Morocco) and Europe… Here there is a certain place where slaves are sold, especially on those days when the merchants are assembled. And a young slave of fifteen years of age is sold for six ducats, and children are also sold. The king of this region has a certain private palace where he maintains a great number of concubines and slaves."
"I am going to tell you a thing, that will make you wish yourself here. The small-pox, so fatal, and so general amongst us, is here entirely harmless, by the invention of engrafting, which is the term they give it. There is a set of old women, who make it their business to perform the operation, every autumn, in the month of September, when the great heat is abated."
"What I have written embodies his compassion to save the world. He knows me and brings retribution upon me. Let everyone hear me out."