A vaccine is a preparation that provides active immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine contains a small amount of the specific disease. This makes your white blood cells produce specific antibodies against that disease meaning that it future it will recognize that disease and be able to create more anti-bodies to get rid of it.
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A child gets each rotavirus vaccine by the mouth. The Flu vaccine is given to most children by nose unless it is not safe to.
When a vaccine is given the white blood cells immediately start to produce anti-bodies to get rid of the diseaseIn the future when the disease tries to attack the body the white blood cells will recognize the disease and will be able to produce anti-bodies quicker meaning that the disease it not as bad.
One of the longest lasting vaccines is the measles vaccine, that lasts for a life time. But the Pneumococcal vaccines only lasts between 4-5 years. All other vaccines lasts between these two time spans.
The vaccine has made the white blood cells make anti-bodies to defend the body against the disease, meaning that when it tries to attack the body, the anti-bodies that have been made before hand by the white blood cells will fight the disease off and get rid of it from the body.
Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune