The title reminds us of a letter from a mother to her son. Based on the title, we think the subject of the poem is a mother’s advice for her son
Lines 1-7: The mother expresses that her life has had hardships. Her life has not been smooth and has instead had many obstacles. Lines 14-17: The mother encourages her son not to look back or give up.
Repetition/Metaphor : “Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair” This emphasizes the fact that there have always been hardships in her life.
Work hard and never give up!
Both the poet’s attitude towards the reader and the subject is optimistic, hopeful. The poet view on the future is that if you don't give up, you can overcome anything.
There is no shift in time as she talks about her general experiences in her life which doesn't have a specific timeframe. There is no shift in attitude towards the reader nor towards the subject.
Resilience: In this poem, Hughes shows that despite challenges in life, people will overcome them and become stronger.