Child labor is the exploitation of children for work so that companies can give their employees less pay and because kids can reach in areas the adult workers are unable to reach.
It all started around late 19th century. It was very popular in North America and Europe
Immigration played a role in the increasing demand for more child workers
Industrialization was also the culprit. Just about any kids around the ages 5 to 17 had to work in order to provide for their families and themselves. They had no choice but to put up with the abuse physically and mentally.
However, not all hope was lost. A movement against child labor was established with the help of people such as Edgar Murphy and Mother Jones. There was also a group called the reformers who were people that believed that children working in factories for long, stressful hours with a high chance for injury and/or death was wrong.
It is thanks to all those factors that western child labor isn't as bad as the almost a century ago
Education for the youth also helped out in stopping western child labor as the reformers lawmakers to enforce a law where kids under 16 shouldn't be working.
Unfortunately, child labor is still around in other countries such as Somalia, Mexico, India and many more. Hopefully this movement will rise up once more to defend globally.