Athens was a democracy. A democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all eligible members of the city-state in this case, typically through elected representatives. The Athenian name for their government was polis.
Both the Athenians and the Spartans are alike because they both had helots (slaves) and the women stayed home. The helots helped the women around the house. The women took care of the house, the children, and other things around the house
Sparta was a strictly ruled military-state. The Spartans were all about physical strength. They didn't care too much for the reading and math education type. All men were sent to practice for battle at the ages 6-7 years old, and returned home in their 60's.