English Civil War and Revolution

English Civil War and Revolution
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  • Fine! I'll sign your stupid petition! I don't care! I'm the King!
  • Thank you, Sire.
  • Sire, the petition says-
  • Oh, I don't care about that stupid thing. 
  • Welcome to the execution of King Charles!
  • I'm sorry!
  • James I's son, Charles I, believed in the Divine Right of Kings just like his father, and refused to work with the Parliament. Because of the arguments over money and religious issues, the Parliament made a Petition of Power, which would Limit Charles I's power. Charles signed this petition, but did not realize how many limits would be set upon him.
  • Should we really? With Charles II?
  • I don't either. We should go back to a Monarchy. 
  • I don't like this military dictatorship Cromwell put up. 
  • I heard he doesn't believe in the divine right of kings. It's his brother James II that's Catholic.
  • Charles I's power to tax, imprison people, quarter troops, and his martial law were all limited by the Petition.  He realized that he never should have signed the petition, so he ignored it. This, coupled with the fact he was imposing more rituals on the Church of England, led to the beginning of a civil war in 1642. The Cavaliers supported the King, and the Round heads supported Parliament.
  • Still hard to believe the Parliament told us to come and invade. I mean, is your father really that bad?
  • He must be. I heard he doesn't have many supporters.
  • William of Orange!
  • Oliver Cromwell led the New Model Army, fighting for Parliament. They were victorious against  King Charles , purged the Parliament of non-supporters, beheaded Charles, and finally abolished Monarchy to set up a Commonwealth. Eventually Cromwell set up a Military Dictatorship and ruled until the end of his life. 
  • What are we calling this again?
  • The Bill of Rights, ma'am.
  • After Cromwell's death, the army reinstated Monarchy with Charles II. Charles learned from his father and didn't threaten the Parliament's power or believe in Divine Right of Kings. Charles II worked with Parliament to create Habeas Corpus Law- everyone gets a trial and can't be held in jail for life. Anglicanism became the official religion, but treated other religions equally. When Charles' brother James II came to power, Parliament worried because he was Catholic.
  • Alright. Let's go ask him to be king. Hope he doesn't hate us for beheading his dad.
  • Parliament proceeded to invite William of Orange, ruler of the Netherlands and husband to James' daughter Mary, to invade and conquer. James had very little support in England, so he fled to France with his family. The revolution was won with nearly no bloodshed and in 1689 William and Mary accepted the offer to rule England. 
  • Under the rule of William and Mary, the English Bill of Rights was formed and laid the foundation for a Constitutional Monarchy. William, Mary, and Parliament all ruled together and destroyed the theory of Divine Right of Kings.
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