Cholera

Cholera
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  • Two days after coming back from Kenya, Timothy begins to become sick.  He noticed that he has watery diarrhea and is becoming dehydrated. He calls his brother to take him to go see the doctor.    
  • Brian, I need to you come over and take me to the doctors. I have gone to the bathroom at least 6 times today and it has been watery diarrhea. I am feeling dizzy.
  • I'll be there in 5 minutes. 
  • Brian!! Hurry!! My stomach is hurting really bad!! I'm feeling nauseous, I might vomit!
  • Hang on tight! We are almost there!
  • Timothy, you have a disease called Cholera. This disease is caused by a bacteria in your intestines. Have you drank or eaten contaminated food or water recently? 
  • Cholera by Andrew Pham 
  • The reason why I am asking is because the disease is caused by consuming contaminated food or water containing the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
  • I just recently came back from a mission trip to Kenya and the last thing I ate was a beef stew from this local restaurant.
  • Disease Agent: Vibrio cholerae (a bacterium that causes cholera, found in food or contaminated water)   Mode of Transmission: Ingestion of contaminated food or water    Host Population: Predominately affects human populations  Geographical Component: Regions with poor sewage systems, inadequate sanitation, etc. (Africa and Southeast Asia) 
  • I am going to put you on rehydration therapy. You are going to drink an over the counter rehydration solution that will help restore the fluids and salts that was lost. If the symptoms become severe, I am going to prescribe antibiotics to reduce the severity of the disease. 
  • What is the treatment plan for this disease?
  • Some symptoms of Cholera include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these people, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours. After consuming contaminated food or drink, V. cholerae releases a toxin into the small intestines causing severe diarrhea. As the toxin begins to colonize in the intestines, symptoms begin to appear 2-3 days after consuming the contaminated food or drink.
  • - In 2015, many cases of Cholera outbreaks were reported in several African countries.
  • -Tanzania begins to report outbreaks of the disease at the beginning of 2015 resulting in 11,600 cases and 144 deaths by the end of 2015. 
  • - Kenya is still affected by cholera after the outbreak begin in 2014
  • To avoid getting the disease, here are the precautions to follow:  1. Wash your hand with soap and water  2. Boil or disinfect water  3. Fully cook all food 4. Be more aware of what you eat when traveling to foreign countries 
  • TREATMENT FOR CHOLERA :  Rehydration Therapy: restoring lost fluids and salts (main treatment) Antibiotic therapy: reduces fluid requirement and duration of illness (more severe cases) Zinc Treatment: improve cholera symptoms in children 
  • Public Health Challenges: 1. 1.8 billion people are still at risk for cholera due to inadequate sanitation and hygiene. 2. Interventions are most likely an effective way to reduce the reoccurrence of Cholera.    ***The cholera epidemic that is well known was during the 1830's in the United States killing thousands in Ohio.
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