In 1824, Congress decided to raise the current tariff in hopes to protect America's growing manufacturing industry. Extremist supporters of Andrew Jackson then decided to propose a higher tariff thinking that Congress would not pass the tariff and it would make President John Quincy Adams look bad. The higher tariff proposal was signed into office in 1828 and became inherited by Jackson. The Southern states, especially South Carolina, hated this new tariff because it forced them to sell their land and livestock while the Northeast and West were bustling with new land, jobs, and people. The South felt that the government was discriminating against them and trying to encroach on their right to own and use slaves leading to slave revolts such as Denmark Vesey's in 1822. The Southern state of South Carolina threatened to nullify the "unconstitutional" tariff if it was not lowered but failed to get the necessary vote of two-thirds. This prompted Congress to pass the Tariff of 1832 which lowered the Tariff of 1828 and denounced any theory of federal encroachment on abolitionism and slave-owning. South Carolina was still not happy about the new tariff because it still did not meet their needs leading to the creation of the Columbian Convention. The Columbian Convention proclaimed that the Tariff was null and void and stated that they would secede from the Union if Congress forced them to pay the duties. This angered President Jackson as he was not used to this type of disobedience. Jackson threatened to invade South Carolina and hang all "nullies" if need be and told Congress to prepare for Civil War. Henry Clay, Jackson's enemy, hated the idea of a civil war and especially hated the idea of Jackson invading South Carolina. Clay, although he supported tariffs, came up with the idea of a compromise tariff. The Compromise Tariff of 1833 lowered the current tariff over a period of ten years until it was as low as the Tariff of 1816. South Carolina agreed with this compromise but Jackson opposed. This led to the creation of the Force Bill which stated that the President could use the army and navy to collect federal duties. South Carolina plotted for war but called upon another Columbian Convention to repeal the recent nullification and nullify the Force Bill. The people of America declared Henry Clay a hero in that he saved America from a civil war.
I have an idea! Let's raise the current tariff. There's no way congress will pass it.
We need a new way to protect the American industry without destroying our Southern agricultural industry. Does anyone have any ideas?
We hope that we can work with our growing agricultural industry to perfect this tariff so that it meets the needs of everyone and not just the manufacturing industry.
It is with great pleasure that I shall announce that Congress has passed the Tariff of 1828. This tariff will be higher than previous.
Well I tell you Mr.Jackson, these high tariffs are going to bring my state's agricultural businesses down into the dirt. You need to repeal or I'm calling null.
I'm sorry to hear that Mrs.South Carolina but I can't do that. The West and Southwest are blooming under these tariffs with more land and more people. I'll see what I can do but I can't nullify the tariff.
Columbian Convention of 1832
We are gathered here today to repeal the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations because it gives an entrance to government intrusion on our right to own slaves. Those who agree to nullify say "Aye."
Sir, I object. We as the government instead need to amend our policies and laws to meet the needs of the governed so as to prevent war.
Okay boys grab your guns and build an army. Mrs.South Carolina is paying that tariff whether by force or peacefully. This type of defiance will NOT be accepted!
The gradual lowering process will span over a period of ten years.
I, Henry Clay, am here to announce the passage of the Compromise Tariff of 1833. This new tariff will gradually lower itself until it is the same as the Tariff of 1816.