A Patriarch is a male leader of a tribal group and is responsible for their survival. God started a covenant with a man named Abraham(middle) and all those who come after him, Isaac(left) and Jacob(right), to lead his people into a life long relationship with God. They are the original ancestors of Jewish faith.
After the people(Isrealites) are freed from slavery in Egypt by Moses sent from God. Moses leads them on their way to the promised land, there is a stop at mount Sinai and here God shares the 10 commandments to Moses and to his people. Although gaining the promised land was tough because Moses died along the way due to old age and the people chose Joshua to lead them as they encountered many enemies.
due to disagreement and poor leadership among the tribes in the promised land, the area got split into two parts, Israel in the north and Judea in the south.
The land of the Jews(Israel) was conquered by the Greek empire(Alexander the great and his army) and renamed to Palestine, Although the land was divided among the leading generals of his army after his death.
Zealots-A group of rebel Jews, wanted to help the Jews become independent and break away fom the greek rules and leadership, they went against the greeks and got their independence.
Jewish Independence only lasted for about 100 years before the Romans took control of the land. The Romans had selected an Idumean Jew named Herod to rule the people of Israel. He would rule on behalf of the Romans until his death in 4 B.C.E and toward the end of his reign it was estimated that Jesus was born.