Carmichael 1932


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  • Would a perceptual set have a long term effect? If we conducted an experiment would words remind people of particular schemas, and affect their memories?
  • Let's find out whether words shown with pictures will affect the way the pictures are remembered!
  • The next figure resembles eye glasses
  • Group 1
  • Original Image
  • Reproduced figure
  • The next figure resembles dumbbells
  • Group 2
  • Original Image
  • Reproduced figure
  • Carmichael, Hogan and Walter (1932)
  • Control Group
  • They split 95 participants into three different groups
  • Group 1
  • The drawings produced by the people in list 1 were very different to the ones is list 2. In each case, the drawings looked like the words they heard. There were over 3000 reproductions and 905 were in the category of "almost completely changed" In group 73% of drawings resembles the word, in group 2, 74% and in the control group 45%. This shows the words affected the participants memories of the drawings.
  • Bottle
  • Crescent moon
  • Stimulus Figure
  • Sun
  • Stirrup
  • Group 2
  • Letter C
  • Ships wheel
  • The three groups all had the same images but different descriptions of each one. They then had to draw them, based on the word they were given. This is the dependent variable
  • In conclusion, memory for pictures is reconstructed. The verbal context in which drawings are learned affects recall because the memory of the word alters the way the picture is presented
  • Control Group: No verbal labels. These three groups were the independent variables.
  • Findings
  • Conclusion. Carmichael et al
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