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The Industrial Revolution
Cities began to grow as rural people went to urban areas for work. New cityscapes were rebuilt, which caused the renewal and rebuilding of poor areas. Streets were paved, lamps and street lights were put in, and proper protection for citizens was enforced. Poor people who lived in the slums were still living in overcrowded tenements. However, the conditions for those of the working started to rise up.
Changes to Cities & Impact on Social Classes
To improve industrial life, workers began protesting. They formed mutual aid societies, which were self help groups to aid sick or injured workers. These groups sometimes broke out as forms of strike. They eventually began to receive higher wages and better conditions.
New Rights Gained By The Working Class
Improvements in medicine, health, nutrition, science, and technology
Populations soared due to the falling death rate from medicine and sanitation advancements. Louis Pasteur developed vaccines against rabies and anthrax. Anesthesia was used to relieve pain in surgery. Antiseptics were used to prevent infection and instruments were sterilized. Sewage systems were made cleaner, which caused cities to be healthier. Tall buildings were now made with steel, which was discovered to be better than iron. Dynamite was found to be a better and safer explosive. Electricity replaced steam. The first light bulb was invented, and a new method of production called the assembly line was produced.
Refers to an establishment that is run by entrepreneurs who finance, manufacture, and distribute goods or services on a large scale. Owners sold stock to investors to get capital. Businesses then formed corporations. Business leaders created monopolies and trusts.
The Rise of Big Businesses
Otto invented a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine. Karl Benz received a patent for the first 3 wheel automobile. Daimler introduced the first 4 wheel automobile. Ford used the assembly line to mass produce cars. The first airplane was created by Orville and Wilbur Wright and flown at Kitty Hawk, NC. Samuel F.B. Morse developed the telegraph which could send coded messages through wires. The transatlantic cable was underwater and allowed messaging between Europe and N America. Bell patented the telephone and Marconi invented the radio.
Advancements in Transportation and Communication
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