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King Hieron II of Syracuse in Sicily asked Archimedes to try to find out whether the crown was pure gold. Archimedes accepted the task and so took the crown away for further studying.
Archimedes took the King's crown to his lab where he puzzled how to test whether it was pure gold. He weighed the crown and then put it onto a scale where another gold ring was. The ring was the same mass as the crown so the scale was balanced.
Archimedes then decided that he was going to put the scale with the gold and the crown into a pot of water. If the scale stayed balanced in the water, then the crown was pure gold because it would have the same density as the gold ring, if the scale tilted towards the gold, the crown would not be pure gold and would be some sort of lighter material because it would not have the density of pure gold.
Archimedes was horrified. The scale tilted towards the gold ring! This means that the crown was not pure gold after all! Archimedes immediately rushed to see the king.
Archimedes arrived at the palace where the King and Queen were standing. He informed them of the awful crime and told them they had been given a false crown. The King was very angry. He ordered his servant to find the blacksmith and to bring him to the palace.
The man was told to leave the kingdom and never come back. The King gave Archimedes his thanks and Archimedes was honoured forever.
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