The Renaissance was a period of European cultural, artistic, political and economic “rebirth". Taking place from the 14th century to the 17th century, the Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature and art. Some of the greatest thinkers, authors, statesmen, scientists and artists in human history thrived during this era, while global exploration opened up new lands and cultures to European commerce.
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that set in place the structures and beliefs that define the continent today. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through the late 18th century.
European politics, philosophy, science and communications were greatly reoriented during the 18th century. Enlightenment thinkers throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions.
The American Revolution arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 colonies and the colonial government of the British crown. In April 1775 armed conflict started in Lexington and Concord. The following summer, the rebels were waging a full-scale war for their independence. After the Continental Army forced the British to surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had won their independence.
During World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union fought together as allies. However, Americans had long been wary of Soviet communism and Joseph Stalin’s blood-thirsty rule of his own country. The Soviets resented the U.S. because of our refusal to treat the USSR as a legitimate part of the international community. This started a trend that would trigger the Cold War. This was a war of races, treaties and advancements not firearms.