In paleoithic times life was hard. The men were out hunting risking their lives for food all day every day while the woman carried their children for miles to get fruit and berries. But they still starved and died.
About 8000 years ago farming was discovered. This meant that woman did not have to leave their shelter to get food anymore, and they also got more food. Then the men started to domesticate animals so they did not have to leave either.
Leadership and laws
vote for me = bacon for you
Now that there was more food, there was enough for everyone, which meant that alot less people starved, so the population grew very quickly.
Division of labor
Since people did not have to move alot for food anymore, they started building permanent shelters near their food supply. Now they had more protection from rain, wind, and some animals.
As more people thrived, they made bigger villages. with bigger villages, they needed rules so that all was orderly, which meant that they needed a leader.
With all the extra food, not everyone needed to be a farmer. So some people focus on making better farming tools such as the ox-pulled plow. This meant that other people needed some of the things that other people had, that they could not make, so they traded.