Three factors led to revolution. First, the Enlightenment spread the idea that everyone should be equal. Second, the French Economy was failing. Third, King Louis XIV was a weak and unconcerned king.
In the 1700's, people were divided into groups of people, like themselves. Those groups were called The Three Estates.
One man, Maximilien Robespierre, began to lead France. He made many changes and ordered death to the people who disagreed with him. His rule, which began in 1793, was called the Reign of Terror.
Napoleon made tax collection more fair and orderly. He removed dishonest government workers. He started new public schools for ordinary citizens. He gave the church back some of its power. He created the laws in France for everyone to have the same, equal rights.
Then, Napoleon's Empire collapsed. He marched over 400,000 men into Russia hoping to conquer it. But the Russians beat them instead, they killed thousands of Napoleon's men. After that, only 10,000 men were able to fight, so they retreated and went back to France.