After the death of Muhammad 4 caliphs took place as the leaders to unify Arabia. Abu united the community when tribes wanted to leave by sending the military.
Schism Between Sunni and Shia’h
Who should rule?
The growth of the Muslim Empire started small with Abu Bakr who helped unite the community when tribes wanted to leave. By 643, the Muslim empire included lands in Iraq, Persia, the eastern Mediterranean, and North Africa.
The Battle of Tours
Ali’s election to the Caliphate was an easy one, but important Muslims changed a few rules which resulted in a civil war. After two long battles Ali won one of them, but in the process he lost numerous supporters. In 661, one of these former supporters murdered Ali.
The Golden Age
Soon after Ali’s death, Mu’awiyah, the leader of the Umayyads, claimed the caliphate. Most Muslims, called the Sunnis, came to accept him. But a minority of Muslims, known as the Shi’ah, or “party” of Ali, refused to do so.
In 711, Muslim armies began their conquests of present-day Spain. However, at the Battle of Tours in 732, forces under the Frankish king Charles Martel turned the Muslims back in France. This battle marked the farthest extent of Muslim advances into Europe, outside of Spain.
The Abbasid dynasty is known for bringing Persian influence into the empire. Literature, poetry and the The Abbasid dynasty is known for bringing Persian influence into the empire. Literature, poetry and the arts flourished at this time. The dynasty of the Abbasids became a Golden Age of achievements, learning and culture in the Muslim Empire through the 500 years.