Muslims also continued to improve upon models of the universe
Geography and Navigation
Another subject of study for Muslim scholars was geography
Muslims greatly advanced the study of mathematics
Beyond such practical matters, Muslim astronomers simply wanted to learn about the universe. Some realized that Earth rotates, or turns, like a spinning top. Muslims also continued to improve upon models of the universe that had been proposed by Greek and Roman astronomers.
After surgery, doctors used thread made from animal gut to stitch the wounds.
Another subject of study for Muslim scholars was geography. Muslim geographers examined plants and animals in different regions, as well as divided the world into climate zones. Most educated people in medieval times believed that Earth was round, but they disagreed about Earth's size. Muslim scientists improved on calculations made by the ancient Greeks to reach a measure of Earth's circumference that was close to the correct value.
Bookmaking and Literature
Writers also composed stories in prose.
Muslims greatly advanced the study of mathematics. They based their work in part on ideas from ancient Babylon, India, and Greece. For example, scholars in Baghdad's House of Wisdom translated the works of the Greek mathematician Euclid as well as important texts from India.
The stories take place in Muslim cities and in places such as China, Egypt, and India.
For some problems, surgeons performed delicate operations as a last resort. Drugs, such as opium and hemlock, put patients to sleep before operations. Muslim surgeons removed limbs, took out tumors, and cleared cataracts (cloudy spots) from the eye. After surgery, doctors used thread made from animal gut to stitch the wounds.
Arabs had a rich heritage of storytelling and poetry. Arab poetry often honored love, praised rulers, or celebrated wit. They often wrote epic poems, or long poems that tell a story. Prose eventually replaced poetry for recording history, special events, and traditions. Writers also composed stories in prose.
One famous collection of stories is called A Thousand and One Nights. Also known as Arabian Nights, this book gathered stories that originally came from many places, including India and Persia, as well as elsewhere in the Middle East. In the book, a wife tells her husband a new tale each night. The stories take place in Muslim cities and in places such as China, Egypt, and India.