1543 - Nicolaus Copernicus created and proposed the Heliocentric Theory
We revolve around the Sun like any other planet.
1591 - Galileo Galilei demonstrates The Properties Of Gravity
1609 - Johannes Kepler created the Planetary Motion
He proposed this theory which is saying the Earth and other planets are all rotated around the sun, instead of the Geocentric theory which is saying every other planet rotated around the Earth.
1609 - Galileo Galilei invented the first telescope
He then did an experiment on the top of the leaning tower of Pisa by dropping two balls with the same weight at the same time, and both balls touched the ground at the same time which proved that the rate of fall of an object is not dependent upon its weight.
1620 - Francis Bacon discovered the scientific method
He said all of the things that Copernicus said are in fact true, but the planets actually moved in ellipses not in circle.
1666 - Isaac Newton created the laws of gravity
He used it to proved the heliocentric theory and what Kepler said, also discovered the sun has dark spots, the moon has a rough uneven surface, and the Jupiter's moons, making the Church uneasy.
He then invented the scientific method is a logical and a step by step process for gathering and testing ideas or theories in order to encourage people to prove their theories through experiment.
He created the laws of gravity, motion and the universal theory because people used to think the earth was in one specific sphere, and he want to proved that was wrong.