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Biology 2

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Biology 2
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  • Aristotle was a Greek scientist and philosopher who lived from 384 BC to 322 BC. He mainly worked in philosophy and polymath, but he helped with categorization in biology. He was one of the first that attempted to create a logical standardized language for naming living things. He based this classification system on characteristics like structural complexity, behavior, and degree of development at birth. He did this so there would be an easier way to categorize and identify living species. His categories formed a hierarchical structure. This system is still used today.
  • Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish naturalist, zoologist, botanist, and physician that lived from 1707 to 1778. He worked with a lot of plants and living organisms. He laid the groundwork for the modern classification system. He placed each organism into a series of hierarchically arranged categories on the basis of its resemblance to other life forms. He also introduced the scientific name that was composed of genus and species. He did this because he thought it was important to have a standard way of grouping and naming species. Once again, this system and naming is still used today.
  • Charles Darwin was an English naturalist, biologist, and geologist that lived from 1809 to 1882. One of his main areas that he worked in was evolution. He published On the Origin of Species and explained that all organisms are connected by common ancestry. Taxonomists began to recognize that taxonomic categories should reflect organisms being related to others based on evolution. He didn't necessarily make a change, but he made the discovery that many species are connected based on characteristics and other features. The concept of evolution is now widely accepted in science.
  • Robert Whittaker was an American plant ecologist that lived from 1920 to 1980. He proposed a five kingdom classification system. His thought process behind this was to divide unicellular microorganisms into two kingdoms based primarily if they're prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The remaining three kingdoms are eukaryotic and multicellular. They're divided based on how they acquire nutrients. It accurately reflected our understanding of evolutionary history. This had to happen because our knowledge continued to grow, and it was realized that there needed to be more categories. This most definitely has given us better understanding and a more detailed way to classify basic forms of life.
  • Carl Woese was an American microbiologist and biophysicist that lived from 1928 to 2012. He revealed that a fundamental event in the early history of life was being overlooked and needed a new and more accurate classification system. He looked into the biochemistry of prokaryotic organisms. By focusing on the nucleotide sequence of RNA, it was discovered that Monera consists of two very different kinds of organisms. These two groups are bacteria and archaea. Woese then proposed the idea of having three domains: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. This was done to fix a mistake and be more detailed in the way we classify organisms. This impacted us today because we still use this same classification system.
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