Places at higher latitude get less sunlight than places in lower latitude. So higher latitudes have colder climates
Winds occur where high pressure air mass seek low pressure areas prevailing winds are largely predictable named. For the broad areas of the earth over which they form convection circulate air flow and help regulate temperature around the glob.
Atmospheric pressure is simply the weight of air pushing down on you from above.As you increase in elevation there is less air above you this is pressure decreasing . As the pressure is deceasing air molecules spread out air expands and temperature decrees.
The rainshadow effect is when it rains on one side of the mountain. And it does not rain on the other side is dry.
An ocean current is any more or less permanent directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earth's oceans.
Distance to ocean
In the day it heats up on land more than the ocean.Hot air rises above the land. Moves to the ocean and goes back down to land