By the 1820 the US had missionaries and merchants on the islands. The arguments for the expansion influences the US regard for Hawaii.
A key provisioning spot for American whaling ships, fertile ground for american protestant missionaries, and a new source of sugar cane production, Hawaii's economy became increasingly integrated with the united states. an 1875 trade reciprocity treaty further linked the two countries and U.S. sugar plantation owners from the united states came to dominate the economy and politics of the islands
President Grover Cleveland sent a new U.S. minister to Hawaii to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne under the 1887. On July
congress approved the Mickinley Tariff. At the same time the Hawaiian throne was passed to Queen Liliuokalani