Travel over mountains and across water was so difficult, the people in different settlements had little communication with each other.
Starting a colony
Some farmers built wide earth steps into the hills to create more flat land for planting because farming wasn't easy on the mountains land.In the plains the land was rocky and the water was scarce.
Sailing on a merchant ship
The populations of Greek communities increased the farmland no long produced enough food to feed all the people. One solution was to start colonies or settlements on distant places.
goods were carried on ships owned by merchants. Merchant ships were not built for space but for space to hold goods. Journeys took a long time because they didn't have compasses or charts to guide them.