Okay kids, today we are learning about macro molecules, such as proteins carbohydrates, lipids,and nucleic acids
our vocab and definitions are the following. Amino acid- a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group. ATP- a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups,
carbohydrate - any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. cellulose-an insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton.
condensation reaction- the conversion of a vapor or gas to a liquid. dehydration synthesis-the combination of two molecules together following the removal of water. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. ester linkage -a chemical compound derived from an acid in which at least one -OH group is replaced by an -o-alkyl group. fatty acids-a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in fats and oils. Glycerol-a colorless, sweet, viscous liquid formed as a byproduct in soap manufacture. glycosidic linkage-formed between a sugar molecule, or carbohydrate, and -OR group. hydrogen bond-a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
A molecule of the kind normally found in living systems .lipid-any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. macromolocle - a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer. monomer-a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer. monosaccharide-any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar. nucleic acids-a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain. nucleotides-a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. organic molecule-A molecule of the kind normally found in living system. peptide bond-a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O).
phosphate-a salt or ester of phosphoric acid, containing PO43− or a related anion or a group such as —OPO(OH)2. phosphodiester linkage-the linkage between the 3' carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 5' carbon atom of another, deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA. polymer-a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins. polysaccharide-a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together. protein-any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies. ribosome-a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins. RNA-ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information. saturated-holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked.