atomic theory

atomic theory

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  • Democritus - 440 BC
  • Small particles named Atomus clump together to create objects
  • John Dalton
  • All atoms of an element are identical, and a combination of different types of atoms form compounds
  • All matter is made from atoms which are indivisible and indestructible
  • J.J Thomson - 1897
  • Inside atoms there are tiny negatively charged particles called electrons
  • These electrons cancel out the positively charged atom to be neutral
  • Niels Bohr - 1913
  • The electrons are not found inside the atom but rather orbit outside the middle nucleus in shells
  • Werner Heisenberg - 1925
  • The exact position and velocity of a particle cannot be measured
  • Mechanical quantities like velocity should be represented by 'matrices' instead of ordinary numbers
  • Quantum Mechanic Model
  • There are three main principles: -quantized properties: certain properties like speed can sometimes only happen in specific, set amounts             -particles of light: light can sometimes behave like a particle   -waves of matter: matter can behave like a wave
  • Objects exist in a haze of probability they have a certain chance of being at point A and another chance at being at point B, another at point C, etc, therefore the position of electrons can never be exactly measured
  • orbital shells
  • electron clouds (area where an electron could be located)
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