knowledge gained through the senses is no more than opinion and that, in order to have real knowledge, we must gain it through philosophical reasoning.
Imagine a cave, in which there are three prisoners. The prisoners are tied to some rocks, their arms and legs are bound and their head is tied so that they cannot look at anything but the stonewall in front of them.
So, imagine that you are one of the prisoners. You cannot look at anything behind or to the side of you – you must look at the wall in front of you.When people walk along the walkway, you can see shadows of the objects they are carrying cast on to the wall.
You shown me a strange imagine, and they they are strange prisoners
the prisoners would begin a ‘game’ of guessing which shadow would appear next.If one of the prisoners were to correctly guess, the others would praise him as clever and say that he were a master of nature.
One of the prisoners then escapes from their bindings and leaves the cave.He is shocked at the world he discovers outside the cave and does not believe it can be real.
The prisoner returns to the cave, to inform the other prisoners of his findings.They do not believe him and threaten to kill him if he tries to set them free.