When humans burn fossil fuels, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere.
nitrogen oxides (NOx)
sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Water (in clouds)
Oxygen (in the air)
Those air pollutants react with water, oxygen, and other substances to form airborne sulfuric and nitric acid.
Winds may spread these acidic compounds through the atmosphere and over hundreds of miles.
When acid rain reaches Earth, it flows across the surface in runoff water, enters water systems, and sinks into the soil.
Acid rain also makes soil acidic, killing plants and trees
Acid rain has many ecological effects, especially on lakes, streams, wetlands, and other aquatic environments. Acid rain makes such waters more acidic, which results in more aluminum absorption from soil, which is carried into lakes and streams. That combination makes waters toxic to crayfish, clams, fish, and other aquatic animals.
We can reduce this type of pollution by using low sulphur fuels and burning less fossil fuels. Or switching to renewable energy resources.